Books, Articles and Research
What is needed to deliver collaborative care to address comorbidity more effectively for adults with a severe mental illness?
This paper examines collaborative care services for people with severe mental disorders that have worked to address comorbidity and the relationship of mental disorders to homelessness, substance use disorders, unemployment, and other health issues in Australia. Researchers identified many key program components that help make integration of care most effective: shared treatment plans and client records, promotion of a "housing first approach," education for staff about comorbidity, and cross-sector collaboration among agencies when serving shared clients. Cross-sector collaboration is described as a real benefit for consumers and staff and as an effective strategy to move Australia toward having more holistic, socially inclusive mental health care.
Developing the philosophy of recovery in South African mental health services
The growth in power and importance of the recovery movement around the world has had an increasing effect on how mental health care is viewed and implemented. This article explores positive outcomes associated with new understandings of recovery and the recovery movement and ways in which a recovery framework can be incorporated into mental health services in South Africa.
NAMI in our own voice and NAMI smarts for advocacy: Self-narrative as advocacy tool
In this column, the author examines the need for advocacy among mental health professionals and researchers and the role it could play in issues related to mental health disorders and other mental health professionals. The author discusses sharing one's recovery story as a means of raising awareness and educating others about mental disorders. He mentions two programs of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), NAMI In Our Own Voice and NAMI Smarts for Advocacy.
Morbidity and mortality in people with serious mental illness
With individuals with serious mental illnesses dying 25 years earlier than individuals from the general population, this report explores contributing causes to this disparity, like smoking, obesity, and inadequate access to medical care. It also outlines recommendations for improvement. Some suggested solutions for addressing this public health problem include the implementation of care standards for prevention, screening, and treatment; better access and integration with physical healthcare services; and ongoing support for educational resources, such as toolkits, to encourage healthy choices and promote personal responsibility. This report also addresses provider agencies directly, highlighting the important role of a hopeful message of recovery and the support of wellness and personal empowerment to help promote individual recovery efforts.
Under the microscope. Peer support: A valued part of recovery, wellness and health reform
This article by the National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors (NACBHDD) discusses the value of peer support and its role in demonstrating that recovery is attainable. This article recognizes peer support as not only a movement but also as a form of delivering care and an evidence-based practice. It also discusses the importance of expanding the ways peer support is utilized and incorporating peer support services into various types of reform, such as insurance and quality reform. In addition, it lists potential action steps to help advance peer support services, provides recommendations and solutions for what can be done at the national and State level to address health disparities, and discusses the importance of integrating behavioral health and primary care services, including the challenges and opportunities involved.
Final report of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health
The World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, brought together in 2011 in Brazil by the World Health Organization (WHO), was a global conference that sought to encourage action on the social determinants of health. This event provided an opportunity for stakeholders to share their experiences with strategies for reducing health inequities and to discuss potential next steps of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. This final report, available for download, provides a full summary of this important conference.
Recovery of evidence-based practice
This research paper explores various aspects of evidence-based practice (EBP), including methodologies, outcomes measures, and evidence standards, from a consumer recovery point of view. Through their examination, researchers worked to critique, inform, and support the expansion of EBP and reshape the study of EBP with the goal of encouraging service providers to provide recovery-oriented support for individuals with mental disorders.
Supporting workers with mental health problems to retain employment: Users' experiences of a UK job retention project
Researchers set out to gain a deeper understanding of the connections between challenges experienced in the workplace by people with mental disorders, support received during employment, and job retention. This study showed that feelings of guilt and self-blame among consumers are barriers to job retention but that, with support, individuals are able to improve communication with their employer including communication to seek accommodations, and experience increased confidence in their self-advocacy abilities. Individual interviews were used to collect data that revealed that peer support groups were a useful intervention that helped individuals with mental disorders retain employment. Researchers concluded that interventions that focus on the employee, his or her work, and the workplace offer more hope than those that focus solely on the individual for improving employment among individuals with mental disorders.
United Nations convention on the rights of persons with disabilities: A roadmap for change
This study examines the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as a means of advancing the social inclusion of individuals with mental disorders or intellectual disabilities. This convention focused on many social barriers that impact the full social participation of people with disabilities while also providing guidance on ways of incorporating disability policy in different countries. The researcher of this study goes on to discuss ways the mental health community will need to work on moving toward creating a new disability discussion that looks at services and supports needed to help people with mental disorders gain complete access to society.
Reaching out to the LGBT population
In this article, the Executive Director of Rainbow Heights Club, a New York program for individuals with mental disorders who identify with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, shares his thoughts on what they have learned about providing support to LGBT people. He cites the U.S. Surgeon General's estimate that 2.6 percent of adults in general are living with a serious mental disorder and adds that this estimate combined with other statistics suggests that 11,000 LGBT adults with mental disorders live in New York City alone. The author goes on to describe the negative attitudes and harmful beliefs that Rainbow Heights Club members have faced, their use of support groups to address these obstacles, and the overall success of the Rainbow Heights approach to supporting LGBT people with mental disorders. Many of these successes involve high levels of consumer appreciation reflected in satisfaction surveys, increases in funding, and decreases in the need for hospitalization among Rainbow Heights Club members.
100 ways to support recovery: A guide for mental health professionals
This report was developed through the collaboration of Rethink and Mike Slade, a clinical psychologist who researched recovery practices throughout Europe, the U.S., and Australia. It includes recommendations to help mental health professionals incorporate recovery-oriented services into their work with individuals with mental disorders. The report outlines the foundations of recovery-oriented mental health services transforming the mental health system, and ways mental health staff can help individuals develop an action plan and recovery goals. The goal of the report is to translate the concept of the Personal Recovery Framework into practice.
Initial outcomes of a mental illness self-management program based on Wellness Recovery Action Planning
In this study, researchers set out to examine psychosocial outcomes in individuals participating in Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP), a peer-led, self-management intervention for mental disorders that focuses on holistic health, strengths, and social support. The 80 individuals who completed surveys before and after WRAP participation showed significant improvement in symptoms, recovery, feelings of hopefulness, self-advocacy, and physical health. Researchers go on to highlight the effectiveness of the WRAP model and its potential to increase self-management and lead to recovery for individuals with mental disorders.
Effects of a peer-run course on recovery from serious mental illness: A randomized controlled trial
This study examined how peer-run services impact the recovery of individuals with mental disorders. At the end of a 12-week course, Recovery Is Up to You, researchers found that the course had improved participants' hopefulness, senses of personal effectiveness, and empowerment, even 3 months after the course had been completed. Researchers' findings show that the role of peer-run services in recovery is a positive one with the potential to improve the recovery journey significantly.
A randomized controlled trial of effects of wellness recovery action planning on depression, anxiety, and recovery
This study examined how effective Wellness Recovery Action Planning (WRAP) sessions were in reducing anxiety and depression and increasing self-perceived recovery among participants with a serious mental health problem. The study included 519 people who took part either in eight WRAP sessions given by certified WRAP educators in recovery or in usual treatment. Researchers found that training in WRAP diminished depression and anxiety and boosted participants' perceived recovery over time. Results suggested that WRAP is an important evidence-based and recovery-focused intervention.
A study of the impact of social support development on job acquisition and retention among people with psychiatric disabilities
In this study, researchers explored the connection between methods for developing social support and employment-related outcomes among people with mental health problems receiving Supported Employment services. Researchers found that individuals with higher numbers of unpaid supporters were more likely to be employed for longer periods of time. Person-Centered Planning was noted as an effective technique in building support; it is a way of building natural, unpaid social supports to promote continued employment.
Pathways to integrated health care: Strategies for African American communities and organizations; Consensus statements and recommendations
In a roundtable discussion hosted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health, dozens of health professionals including psychologists, counselors, primary care doctors, and individuals from advocacy organizations discussed efforts to address health disparities that impact African Americans. These professionals explored the history of these health inequalities, some successful integrated care models, and recommendations for countering these disparities. This report summarizes the group's findings and goes on to emphasize the need for culturally designed prevention methods to holistically address the wellness and mental health of African Americans.
Study shows physical and mental health benefits of sports participation in adolescents
This article describes the results of a study on the benefits that sports can have for adolescents. Research shows that 12- to 14-year-olds who play team sports and are physically active feel healthier and are happier with their lives. The study concludes that participation in youth sports not only has the potential to increase satisfaction with life at a key time in development but also to improve school connectedness, social support, and bonding with peers.
Empowerment in supported employment research and practice: Is it relevant?
Researchers in this study explored the connection between empowerment and quality of life of individuals with mental disorders entering supported employment. This study also examined empowerment's relationship to engagement in community life and individuals' experience with negative attitudes and beliefs. Results reaffirmed the value of empowerment in the supported employment setting and the importance in considering social and community integration benefits of having a job.
A questionnaire survey on attitudes and understanding towards mental disorders
This study sought to gather information about attitudes and general understanding of mental disorders among people in Hong Kong, China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from over 1,000 participants who represented different age groups and socioeconomic statuses. Survey data showed increased knowledge and acceptance among survey participants who had regular contact with people with mental health conditions. The study concluded that people developing and implementing mental health awareness programs should incorporate strategies to increase social contact between individuals with mental disorders and those without these disorders in the general public.
Prevalence and risk of violence against adults with disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
In this article, researchers report on findings from a review of prior studies examining the prevalence and risk of violence against individuals with disabilities in comparison to people who are not disabled. Although the types of disability and violence explored in the earlier studies varied, the authors of this article found that "adults with disabilities are at a higher risk of violence than are non-disabled adults, and those with mental illnesses could be particularly vulnerable."
Asset development for people with psychiatric disabilities: The essential roles of financial security in recovery
The University of Illinois at Chicago's National Research and Training Center on Psychiatric Disability conducted the study described in this report. The study examined how effectively asset development programs called individual development accounts (IDAs) in combination with other support programs helped individuals with severe mental disorders to recover. Researchers conducted a literature review and provided findings from an IDA program providing general financial education to individuals with mental disorders. After highlighting the success of IDA programs for people with mental disorders and the need for increased access to such programs, researchers share recommendations for program development and future research.
Shared decision-making in mental health care: Practice, research, and future directions
This report discusses the overall concept and value of the practice of shared decision-making (SDM) in the treatment of mental disorders. SDM is an approach that recognizes the importance of consumers' assuming an active role in communicating with care providers about their needs and preferences and ultimately assuming responsibility for making decisions about their own care. Researchers describe SDM as having the potential to enhance care and recovery. Research on SDM is explored in depth, and future steps and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.
Housing for people with mental illness: Update of a report to the President's New Freedom Commission
This article summarizes many of the issues associated with the high rates of homelessness for individuals with mental disorders, all of which were reviewed by the Subcommittee on Housing and Homelessness of the President's New Freedom Commission. The article examines key subcommittee recommendations, as well as other topics related to preventing and responding to the issue of homelessness among people with mental disorders.
Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence.
This article examines research evidence that shows lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGB) having higher rates of mental disorders than heterosexuals. In seeking to understand this disparity, the author has developed and presents a framework to examine the factors contributing to this increased prevalence. He suggests that minority stress, which includes prejudice and discrimination experienced or anticipated by LGBs as well as a number of other factors, makes for a hostile and stressful environment that leads to the development of mental disorders.
Gender differences in mental health
In an effort to identify effective approaches to treating and preventing mental disorders, this paper examines gender differences in various mental disorders including eating disorders, schizophrenia, and depression.
Dismantling the poverty trap: Disability policy for the twenty-first century
This article explores the high rate of poverty and unemployment that many individuals with disabilities experience and the role that economic reforms can play in addressing these issues. Researchers share recommendations for guiding such reforms.
Building partnerships: Conversations with communities about mental health needs and community strengths
This report produced by the UC Davis Center for Reducing Health Disparities examines the needs of underserved communities, strategies to prevent mental disorders, and ways to address mental health needs specifically while also identifying strengths within the community. Researchers partnered with agencies, members, and advocates within specific communities to give them an opportunity to express their view of what is needed in their community with the goal of helping counties develop their plans and programs for the prevention of mental disorders. Participants' responses highlighted a number of key factors within these communities, including the prevalence of violence and trauma, the role of social conditions such as poverty and unemployment as being a hindrance to community well-being, and the lack of affordable services available in communities.
Substance abuse prevention dollars and cents: A cost-benefit analysis
This report explores the importance of supporting substance abuse prevention programs. It analyzes substance use, including that of youth, costs of substance abuse to the country, and some potential cost savings of successful prevention programs and policies.
Poverty, social inequality and mental health
In this article, researchers note the role that poverty plays in suffering and inequality around the world and explore the direct and indirect impacts of poverty. They also examine the development of emotional, behavioral, and psychiatric problems in the context of the growing disparities between rich and poor, with special emphasis on the problems experienced by children.
Adults traumatized by child abuse: What survivors need from community-based mental health professionals
In this study, researchers seek to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of childhood abuse from the adults who have experienced it. They then describe the interventions and trauma treatment approaches that are the most effective. Study participants highlighted the need for trauma-based treatment that is easily accessible and for community-based therapists who are informed about trauma issues.
Psychiatry and recovery-oriented practice: A situational analysis
This report provides an overview of a collaborative project of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Community Psychiatrists, and an advisory group comprising psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and consumers. This project worked to develop and share educational materials for psychiatrists to encourage their use of recovery-oriented practices. SAMHSA's 10 recovery components are discussed and barriers, strengths, and opportunities associated with this approach are examined. Also, in this report, psychiatrists' current understanding and use of recovery-oriented practices is explored.
Population mental health: Evidence, policy, and public health practice
This book explores the evidence base for including issues related to mental disorders as a priority in the public health agenda. It discusses the connection between physical and mental disorders, the impact of health policies on the care of people with mental disorders, some of the barriers to developing a revised public health approach to mental disorders, and the use of public health intervention models.
Improving the physical health of people with serious mental illness: A systematic review of lifestyle interventions
This literature review explores the quality of research in the U.S. on the topic of unmet health needs of people with mental disorders and lifestyle interventions that could improve overall health and reduce premature morbidity. Through the review, researchers were also able to summarize intervention strategies, explore various health outcomes, and assess the role that race, ethnicity, and culture played in these interventions.
Promoting mental well-being and social inclusion through art: Evaluation of an arts and mental health project
Researchers in this study review the benefits reported by consumers following their participation in introductory art courses offered by an arts and mental well-being project. Questionnaires used at the start and end of courses showed that participants recognized improvements in well-being and social inclusion.
Effectiveness of peer support in reducing readmissions of persons with multiple psychiatric hospitalizations
This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of employing peer support as a means of decreasing reoccuring psychiatric hospitalizations. Based on study results, researchers concluded that using peer mentors is an effective approach to reducing both the frequency and length of hospitalizations for individuals with high likelihoods of being readmitted.
Mental health crisis: What do service users need when in crisis?
Researchers in this study explored the crisis needs of individuals seeking support services for mental disorders. One goal of the study was to learn whether there was strong support for the development of residential crisis services, an alternative to hospitalization. Study results indicated that 93 percent of both consumers and providers supported the idea of residential crisis services. In addition, participants' responses suggested that being able to express concerns and participating in decisions during treatment were also important.
What do consumers say they want and need during a psychiatric emergency?
This article is based on results of a survey seeking consumer perspectives and recommendations on enhancing emergency psychiatric care. Most participants had had negative experiences in hospital emergency rooms and suggested that specialized psychiatric emergency services be developed. Additional recommendations from consumer participants for improving emergency care included the incorporation of verbal interventions, taking a collaborative approach where consumers would be treated with respect and involved in treatment decisions, and an increase in the use of peer support services.
A case study of the peer-run crisis respite organizing process in Massachusetts
This case study examined the experiences of a group of consumers working to implement peer-run crisis respites (PRCRs) in Massachusetts. It includes information on the evidence base supporting PRCRs and different models of PRCRs as well as the grassroots organizing process used by the group to advocate for implementation of PRCRs in Massachusetts. The goal is to help inform groups in other communities interested in gaining support for and implementing PRCRs.
The Community Defined Evidence Project (CDEP)
This project is a collaborative effort between the National Latino Behavioral Health Association (NLBHA) and National Network to Eliminate Disparities in Behavioral Health (NNED) to advance understanding of effective community-based practices for Latinos. The project plans to develop an evidence base that uses key cultural and community indicators and to use this information to influence research, evaluation, policymakers, and funders to support efforts to implement and use community-based practices to reduce disparities and improve both access and quality of care for Latinos..
Reaching Out: An Action Plan on Social Exclusion
The Action Plan described in this article works to counter the experiences of many who have been socially excluded in the UK. The plan shifts from focusing on treatment to focusing on prevention to break the cycle of disadvantage. This plan has five key guiding principles: to develop better identification and earlier intervention; to systematically identify successful approaches; to promote collaboration among agencies; to tailor programs of support developed based on those in need; and to support achievement and manage underperformance.
Outcomes Framework for Mental Health Services
This framework--adopted as a number of health and social services in the United Kingdom redirect their efforts to advance social inclusion-- focuses on working-age adults with mental disorders. The framework serves as a resource to government officials and providers to help monitor, evaluate, and document progress made toward implementing socially inclusive practices and meeting nationally established standards.
The Imperative of a New Approach to Warrior and Veteran Care
Recognizing the alarming rates of depression, brain injury, and suicide among active service members and veterans, this policy brief describes the need for: a new model for dispersing federal funds; changes to the relationship between the Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); and inclusion of private-sector stakeholders, such as nonprofit organizations, in addressing these issues. It provides current statistics on service member and veteran mental and substance use disorders and recommendations for the White House, the DOD, and the VA to improve care.
Introduction to "Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community's assets"
This publication is an introduction to a guide on rebuilding troubled communities that emphasizes identifying and building upon community strengths rather than focusing on deficits within the community. It includes success stories of communities that have thrived and the role that the asset-based community development strategy has played in developing steps toward community growth. This introduction explores ways the traditional approach has failed communities, identifies problems, and discusses solutions and assets of a community, including those of individuals, associations, and institutions.
Evidence-based practices and multicultural mental health
Current trends in the behavioral health field show a significant increase in the promotion of evidence-based practices (EBPs) and requirement that they be incorporated into health and behavioral health care services. This emphasis reflects efforts to increase quality and accountability in services provided. This article not only addresses the use of EBPs and what it means for health and behavioral health services but also how they relate to better care for multicultural populations. Some key factors discussed include the history of EBPs, cultural competence and adaptations of EBPs, and recommendations for policy.
Leading Change: A Plan for SAMHSA's Roles and Actions 2011-2014
This publication describes SAMHSA's plans for 2011 through 2014 to help people with behavioral health problems and their families. Their main focus is to help in developing strong communities, prevent behavioral health problems, and promote better health for all Americans. This plan is outlined by the eight new Strategic Initiatives that will guide SAMHSA's work, each Initiative with its own purpose, specific goal, action step, and measure for determining success.
"A disease like any other?" A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence
Over the last 15 years, behavioral health conditions have increasingly been described as medical diseases by behavioral health professionals, advocates, and policy makers as a way to counter lack of service use and negative and harmful attitudes and misconceptions. This study examined the effects that this neurobiological explanation has had on the rate of those seeking treatment and on the general public's attitude toward people with mental health challenges during the period of 1996-2006. Results suggest that this medical disease approach to understanding behavioral health problems has led to increased support for services but has not significantly reduced negative and harmful beliefs and attitudes. Researchers suggest that to reduce negative attitudes and discrimination, providers and advocates must shift to an emphasis on competence and inclusion.
Child wellness and social inclusion: Values for action
This article discusses various approaches to promoting inclusion of youth through Participatory Action Research (PAR). Recognizing the immense contributions that inclusion has on wellness, researchers address specific values of social inclusion on child wellness and the action needed to implement these values.
A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services
This paper seeks to define recovery and discuss what recovery means for the development of future behavioral health services. It addresses ways the recovery approach can be beneficial for individuals' overall health and for social care services, i.e. services which address needs associated with the health and welfare of the population. The paper encourages mental health professionals, consumers, and friends and family of consumers to work toward enhancing current standards and making recovery a key component of developing services.
Does the scientific evidence support the recovery model?
The recovery model is a social movement that has continued to impact the development of mental health services worldwide. Some of its basic principles include optimism about outcome from psychosis, empowerment of individuals with behavioral health problems, and collaborative decision-making regarding treatment. This editorial highlights data that suggest positive outcomes for consumers with schizophrenia when optimism is incorporated into recovery. The editorial discusses how empowering individuals throughout recovery can enhance the process. The research shows that employment helps people recover from psychosis and demonstrates the importance of addressing the negative, internalized perceptions of behavioral health problems during recovery. This editorial goes on to address other ways in which these basic recovery model principles are supported by scientific research.
Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction
This manual provides a strong basis for introducing the evidence-based Housing First approach in addressing homelessness. It includes guidance in developing policies and programs. The DVD offered with this manual demonstrates the concepts shared, also including success stories of clients, model teams in action, and useful tips.
Journal of Primary Prevention "SPECIAL ISSUE: Homelessness & Mental Illness"
This journal issue includes 16 articles that focus on the issues of homelessness and behavioral health problems. Articles included in this issue focus on a variety of related topics including homelessness prevention, Critical Time Intervention, homelessness among veterans, reemployment, and the role of family contact and housing stability.
From Study to Action: A Strategic Plan for Transformation of Mental Health Care
This document discusses the findings and recommendations of four different policy reports including: the Institute of Medicine Quality Chasm, the President's New Freedom Commission report, the SAMHSA Federal Action Agenda, and the Institute of Medicine Improving the Quality of Health Care for Mental and Substance-Use Conditions. The discussion of these four policy reports provides strategies and an in-depth framework to aid in the transformation of the mental health system.
Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings
As the field of homeless services has advanced, providers have increasingly realized the importance of addressing long-term healing for people who have experienced homelessness, many of whom are trauma survivors. Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) provides a framework that can be used to support trauma survivors in homeless service settings and represents a promising area for increasingly effective and sensitive service approaches for highly vulnerable people. This paper explores the evidence for TIC within homelessness service settings and examines implications for providers, programming, policy, and research.
Homeless services in the U.S.: Looking back, looking forward: An open letter to policymakers, advocates, and providers
In this editorial, the author suggests strategies for developing inclusive, comprehensive approaches to ending homelessness. She emphasizes the importance of incorporating new research findings and program models as well as linking multiple systems of care to effectively meet the needs of individuals who have experienced homelessness.
Transforming the nation's health: Next steps in mental health promotion
In this commentary, A. Kathryn Power, Director of the SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, advocates for a public health approach to behavioral health promotion and behavioral disorder prevention. She discusses the relationship of behavioral health to overall health and presents a strategy to build resilience at the individual, family, and community levels. She also describes SAMHSA's work to attain the goals within the strategy.
Mental health, social exclusion and social inclusion
This article outlines a social systems approach to understanding social exclusion of people with behavioral health problems. The author notes that social exclusion and inclusion are not opposites and offers an alternative way of thinking about them both. She asserts that society needs policy initiatives to eliminate structural barriers that lead to social exclusion and to challenge negative ideas and misconceptions about people with behavioral health problems.
Housing first services to people who are homeless with co-occurring and mental illness and substance abuse
This article details a study in which researchers contrasted outcomes for two groups of adults with co-occuring mental and substance use disorders who had been homeless. One group was in a Housing First program, the other in standard care. Housing First provides consumers with permanent, independent housing without requiring them beforehand to attain sobriety and enter treatment. Standard care requires participants to enter treatment before being placed in housing. After 48 months, researchers found no statistically significant differences in alcohol and drug use between the groups.
Housing First for long-term shelter dwellers with psychiatric disabilities in a suburban county: A four-year study of housing access and retention
This article describes a study in which behavioral health consumers with long histories of shelter use were assigned to a Housing First program or a control group. Housing First provides consumers with permanent, independent housing without being required beforehand to attain sobriety and enter into treatment. In the study, outcomes over four years were better for the group in the Housing First program.
Relationship between attitudes toward mental illness and provision of pharmacy services
The goal of this research study was to compare pharmacists perceptions of people with depression with views of people with schizophrenia. Researchers also wanted to examine whether pharmacists' attitudes influenced willingness to provided services to patients with behavioral health problems. Results suggest that pharmacists' surveyed held more positive attitutes toward individuals with depression versus those with schizophrenia. Pharmacists' survey responses also suggest that they are more willing to provide services to individuals with behavioral health problems if their responses reflect that they have less negative attitudes. Minority pharmacists were more willing to provide services to patients with behavioral health problems.
Empowerment and peer support: Structure and process of self-help in a consumer-run center for individuals with mental illness
This study found that having social supports and developing a sense of self-esteem were factors that motivated people with behavioral health problems to continue to attend a self-help drop-in center. Findings from the study also suggest that people with behavioral health problems benefit from helping their peers.
Effects of participation in consumer-operated service programs on both personal and organizationally mediated empowerment: Results of multisite study
This study explores the effectiveness of consumer-operated service programs (COSPs). The authors explain that more evidence is needed to determine whether COSPs are effective and how they can be improved. However, they found some evidence to suggest that these programs empower consumers, and they explain that consumers who attend more often show more improvement. The authors also explain that studies of COSPs are complicated by the different types of COSPs available and by differing definitions of "empowerment." They conclude that researchers should continue to study COSPs but should more specifically study components of COSPs rather than whole programs.
WHO report on mental health and development: Targeting people with mental health conditions as a vulnerable group
This report from the World Health Organization asserts that people with behavioral health problems are often unfairly marginalized during development efforts around the world. To address this issue, the report emphasizes the need to consider people with behavioral health problems when planning a development agenda. Some of the recommendations include mainstreaming behavioral health services within the general health system, rebuilding behavioral health services during and after emergencies, and including people with behavioral health problems in the development process.
Mental illness stigma lingers even though people understand it's a brain disease
This Los Angeles Times article describes a new survey, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, which finds the public is more willing to view behavioral health problems as a neurobiological issue and more willing to support the need for services. However, the survey also found that this positive change in attitude does not mean that the public is more willing to associate with people who have behavioral health problems.
Towards an agenda for disability research in Europe: Learning from disabled people's organizations
This policy statement from the European Research Agendas for Disability Equality (EuRADE) project makes the case for including people with disabilities at every stage of social policy research, from the planning stages to completion. The authors assert that disability must be mainstreamed in research and disability-related research must be grounded in the social model of disability. The statement notes the challenges and opportunities for integrating people with disabilities into European research and outlines ways to promote acceptance and disability equality in research.
Mental health self-help: Consumer and family initiatives
This book includes an overview of the mental health self-help movement, which is a movement for behavioral health consumers and advocates to provide or improve treatment for people experiencing behavioral health problems. The authors provide a history of the movement, consider issues in training and funding for treatment, and suggest future directions for the movement. This book will be useful for community, clinical psychology, and public health researchers, as well as clinicians, counselors, social workers, case managers, and policymakers.
Average earnings significantly affected by serious mental illness
MedWire News reports on findings of a new study showing that people with mental health problems earn significantly lower wages. The study, published in the British Journal of Psychiatry, uses survey data collected by the World Health Organization.
Stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness: A critical appraisal.
This editorial urges investigators to conduct more research on stigma related to mental health. The author suggests specific research to evaluate stigma among mental health professionals and others who often interact with people who experience mental health problems. Additionally, the author recommends evaluating anti-stigma interventions over the long term to determine whether they have sustained effects or need to be repeated.
Recovering from Illness or Recovering your Life? Implications of Clinical Versus Social Models of Recovery from Mental Health Problems for Employment Support Services
This article includes seven case studies, which the authors analyze to identify the strengths and weaknesses of two mental health recovery models for employment support services (clinical and social). Based on data, the authors conclude that the social recovery model shows more promise than the clinical model. However, they note that such an approach should include consultation with mental health professionals.
Development of mental health first aid guidelines on how a member of the public can support a person affected by a traumatic event: a Delphi study
This article provides guidelines for assisting a child or adult who has experienced a traumatic event in hopes of preventing potential mental health problems. The authors describe the process they used to identify these guidelines, which included conducting a literature search, developing a questionnaire, and recruiting experts to vet potential guidelines. While the resulting list would benefit from an evaluation of effectiveness, it is useful to those developing a first aid or trauma intervention curriculum and to individuals assisting survivors of trauma.
Community integration of persons with psychiatric disabilities in supportive independent housing: A conceptual model and methodological considerations
This paper outlines factors that affect community integration of people with psychiatric disabilities who are living in supportive independent housing. These factors form the authors' proposed conceptual model. Grounded in this model, the authors also recommend methodology for future research in this area.
Attitudes that determine willingness to seek psychiatric help for depression: a representative population survey applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour
This article explores attitudes that affect help-seeking behavior. Researchers used a telephone interview (grounded by the Theory of Planned Behavior model) with a population sample in Germany to determine attitudes that encourage help-seeking behavior and those that hinder it. They found that attitudes and beliefs affected respondents' willingness to seek help for symptoms of depression, and they suggest that as public perceptions of depression change, help-seeking behavior will also change.
A decade of stigma and discrimination in mental health: The more things change, the more they stay the same
This study compares data from 1997 with data from 2007 to determine whether public perceptions of mental health consumers have changed. The data come from a 1997 study and a 2007 mail survey conducted in England. While national and international organizations have implemented a number of initiatives over the past decade to promote acceptance of mental health consumers, data show that perceptions have generally remained the same.
Poverty and social exclusion in the WHO European Region: Health systems respond
This report from the World Health Organization includes studies from several countries, each examining the relationship between poverty and health, including mental health. The report includes information about how this relationship influences access to care and provides suggestions for addressing the needs of people experiencing poverty or social exclusion.
Contextual errors and failures in individualizing patient care: A multicenter study
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs funded this study to explore how often physicians ask patients probing questions to better understand biomedical and contextual factors that may complicate patients? medical problems. Asking about these factors ensures that physicians make informed diagnoses and recommend appropriate care; however, investigators found that the physicians studied were more likely to provide appropriate care for medical conditions without complicating factors than for those with complicating factors, and they were less likely to ask about complicating contextual factors than about complicating biomedical factors.
Warrior resilience training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology
The article's author describes his experience teaching Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) to service members deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom. This training is offered in the combat zone to increase the resilience of combat personnel, and the author provides feedback related to WRT, as well as suggestions for better integrating and marketing behavioral health services through leaders on the front line.
Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.
This article outlines the methods, results, and conclusions of a study showing that interventions to increase psychological resilience and social support may protect against mental health problems among service members returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.
Integrating peer-provided services: A quasi-experimental study of recovery orientation, confidence, and empowerment
This study explores whether vet-to-vet support programs enhance recovery from behavioral health problems. Investigators compared results from service members in peer education and support programs to those in traditional care programs that do not include peer support. Their results suggest that a peer support component in behavioral health care improves confidence and empowerment.
Pillars of peer support: Transforming mental health systems of care through peer support services
This report summarizes the results and findings of the Pillars of Peer Support Services Summit, held at The Carter Center in November 2009. The Summit brought together representatives from States that currently provide formal training and certification for peer providers working in mental health systems. The purpose was to examine the multiple levels of support States need to provide in order to create a strong and vital peer workforce that is able to engage in mental health systems transformation.
Self-stigma common in schizophrenia, linked to empowerment
This study describes the level of self-stigma, stigma resistance, empowerment, and perceived discrimination reported by mental health service users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder across 14 European countries. Based on the results of their research, the researchers hypothesized that interventions to enhance empowerment and social contact may have a role in reducing self-stigma.
Understanding and influencing the stigma of mental illness
This article identifies three types of negative perceptions of mental health problems that may prevent consumers from accomplishing recovery-related goals. The article also identifies ways to address these barriers.
Stigma keeps some Latinos from depression treatment
This article summarizes the results of a recent study of low-income Latinos experiencing depression. The study finds that Latinos with negative perceptions of mental health problems are less likely to take medication, keep scheduled appointments, and effectively manage their mental health problems.
Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness
This article stresses the importance of adopting a more integrated view of mental and physical wellness and translating this view into concrete changes to our country's overall care delivery model. The article discusses the positive benefits that can be achieved through implementing linked approaches.
"Mental health recovery: What helps and what hinders?
This report covers research findings about the factors that can help consumers recover, as well as the factors that can negatively influence consumers and ultimately hinder their recovery. The researchers' long-term goal is to develop a core set of systems-level indicators to measure critical elements and processes of mental health service environments that facilitate recovery.
Words used to describe substance-use patients can alter attitudes, contribute to stigma
This article discusses recent research findings about the impact of language on providers' perception of people with alcohol and substance abuse problems.
Self-stigma and coming out about one's mental illness
Self-stigma can undermine the self-esteem and self-efficacy of people with serious mental health problems. Investigators hypothesized that coming out about one's mental health problems would mediate the effects of negative self perceptions on one's quality of life. This study compares coming out to other approaches of controlling negative self perceptions, and investigators discuss implications for how coming out enhances one's quality of life.
Perpetuating stigma? Differences between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in two professional journals
This article details an examination of advertisements aimed at health professionals to establish whether there are any differences between advertisements for psychiatric medications and advertisements for non-psychiatric medications. The research showed that a distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; that this has the potential to result in or perpetuate negative and inaccurate perceptions, among both professionals and the public; and that this has troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding direct-to-consumer advertising.
How etiological explanations for depression impact perceptions of stigma, treatment effectiveness, and controllability of depression
Controversy exists regarding how etiological explanations for depression, particularly biological explanations, influence negative perceptions of depression, perceived controllability of depression, and perceived effectiveness of depression treatments. This study evaluates how biological and psychosocial explanations for depression relate to these variables. Negative perceptions of depression appear more meaningfully related to individuals' personal experiences with depression than to etiological explanations for depression, yet etiological models appear to have important implications for treatment preference and perceived controllability of mood.
Shunned: Discrimination against people with mental illness
Thornicroft's book explores how negative perceptions affect the lives of people with mental health problems.
The Importance of Community Development For Health and Well-Being
This report examines the key role that environmental and community forces play in promoting health and preventing disease. In addition, the authors assert that social and public works programs will be more successful if people living in impacted neighborhoods are afforded the opportunity to participate in the creation and management of the initiatives that affect them.
Evaluation of a middle school mental health education program: Executive summary
Wahl details his findings that the "Breaking the Silence" curriculum may help prevent the formation of negative attitudes and foster more accurate understanding and acceptance of people with psychiatric disorders among middle school aged children.
Action towards healthy living-for all
This journal article suggests that remedial measures are necessary to ensure that public policies become more closely aligned with the findings of biomedical and social research regarding the key essentials of health and well-being.
Fair society, healthy lives: Strategic review of health inequalities in England post 2010
This paper describes British issues in health equity, social determinants of health, and UK-style societal interventions in both mental health and overall health with mental health playing a critical role.
Low Socioeconomic Status Affects Cortisol Levels in Children Over Time
A new study from Edith Chen and colleagues suggests that there is a positive correlation between low socio-economic factors and low cortisol levels in children. This may have implications in future susceptibility to physical illness and mental health problems.
Work transitions for peer support providers in traditional mental health programs: unique challenges and opportunities.
Peer support is gaining recognition as a valuable component of mental health service delivery and as a meaningful employment opportunity for mental health consumers. Despite the potential benefits of peer support, there continue to be many barriers to the development and funding of peer positions. This article reports on the results of a multisite project whose goal was to build capacity for employment of trained peer providers in local, community-based mental health programs.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer delivered anti-stigma program: replication with graduate-level helping professionals.
This study evaluated the consumer-delivered anti-stigma presentation In Our Own Voice (IOOV) with Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) students, replicating a previous study with undergraduates. Thirty M.S.W. students completed pre- and post-presentation surveys to measure changes in attitude, knowledge, and social distance after the presentation. The results of this study further support the effectiveness of IOOV and indicate that graduate-level helping professionals can benefit from anti-stigma programs. Future research should go beyond self-report knowledge and attitude evaluation, test the efficacy of the components of the IOOV program (video, contact with presenters), and test the lasting effects of the program.
"Using Situation Testing to Document Employment Discrimination Against Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities"
Many individuals with psychiatric disabilities are unemployed or under-employed, with detrimental consequences for their lives and mental health. Although prior research suggests that stigmatization and discrimination contribute to this outcome, the exact extent of such employer behavior has remained largely undetermined. This article reviews the employment situation of persons with psychiatric disabilities, considers traditional ways to analyze the role of discrimination, and proposes situation testing as a new methodology overcoming many limitations of prior research.
Recovering Consumers and a Broken Mental Health System in the United States: Ongoing Challenges for Consumers/ Survivors and the New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. Part I: Legitimization of the Consumer Movement and Obstacles to It.
This article is the first of a two-article series that examines how multiple counteracting forces have situated the psychiatric consumer movement today, either propelling it or trying to reverse its achievements in shaping the production of mental health services. This part of the series describes how professionals came to embrace consumer/survivor perspectives, as well as attempts of oppositional forces to de-legitimize the movement's gains early in federally funded initiatives of consumer-run demonstration projects.
Towards social inclusion in mental health?
This article explores the uses of the terms "social exclusion" and "social inclusion" in a mental health context. Focusing on social inclusion as a remedy for the ills of social exclusion, this article discusses implications for contemporary mental health policy, practice, and research and concludes that a better theoretical understanding of causal mechanisms is needed to enable the development of more socially inclusive mental health services.
Social Inclusion as a determinant of mental health and wellbeing
This Research Summary was developed as part of the VicHealth Mental Health Promotion Plan in 2005 to provide an overview of the impact of social inclusion on mental health.
Vision and Progress: Social Inclusion and Mental Health
This report examines the progress of the National Social Inclusion Programme as it works to implement the activities outlined by the 2004 Mental Health and Social Exclusion Report. Details are given on the progress made so far and on the work still to be done.
Mental Health and Social Exclusion: Social Exclusion Unit Report
This report examines the impact mental health problems have on increasing social exclusion. The report also developed a 27-point action plan to address this problem.
Closing the gap in a generation: Health equity through action on the social determinants of health
This report examines the final findings from the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health.
A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitement for acute psychiatric crisis
This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health, consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) with the effectiveness of a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n = 393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment.
History of Childhood Maltreatment Linked to Higher Rates of Unemployment, Poverty: Outcomes of Aubuse and Neglect Impost Significant Cost to Individual and Society
This article discusses the results of a study that examined the long-term impacts of childhood maltreatment, both for the individual and for society.
The Role of Social Network and Support in Mental Health Service Use: Findings From the Baltimore ECA Study
A significant number of people with mental illness do not use mental health services to receive treatment for their symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that social network and social support affect mental health service use. Increased contact with the social network and higher levels of social support were associated with greater use of general medical services. However, more social support was associated with use of fewer services within the specialty psychiatric sector.
Compeer friends: A qualitative study of a volunteer friendship programme for people with serious mental illness
This study explored the benefits and drawbacks of an intentional friendship programme (Compeer, Inc), which develops new social relationships for people with serious mental illness by matching them in one-to-one relationships with community volunteers for weekly social activities.
Social support, activities, and recovery from serious mental illness: STARS study findings
Research on the role of social support in recovery from severe mental illness is limited and even more limited is research on the potential effects of participating in various activities. This study explores these relationships by analyzing baseline data from a 153-participant subsample in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies.
The meaning and importance of employment to people in recovery from serious mental illness: Results of a qualitative study
Given the high rates of unemployment and underemployment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities, only a small number of studies have investigated the role work has in the lives of people who have been successful vocationally during their recovery from serious mental illness. This study sought to add to existing literature by determining how individuals perceive work and its effect on their recovery.
Social relationships as a decisive factor in recovering from severe mental illness
Recovery research often describes recovery from mental illness as a complex individual process. In this article a social perspective on recovery is developed. Researchers aim to ascertain which factors people regard as decisive to their own recovery and what makes them beneficial.
Stigma, poverty, and victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness
This article addresses three roadblocks that exist towards recovery for individiauls with a mental illness including stigma, poverty, and victimization.
Ingroup perception and responses to stigma among persons with mental illness
Researchers tested the hypothesis that the way persons with mental illness perceive their ingroup (people with mental illness) in terms of group value, group identification and entitativity (perception of the ingroup as a coherent unit) shapes their reaction to stigma.
Relationships between stigma, depression, and treatment in white and African American primary care patients
This study examined the relationships among depression, mental health stigma, and treatment in African American and white primary care patients.
Changing attitudes of high school students towards peers with mental health problems
This study evaluated the effects of an antistigma program that was initiated in schools of Serbia with the aim to address and decrease discrimination of adolescents with mental disorders.
Unfortunately, we treat the chart:" Sources of stigma in mental health settings
This study investigated stigma in mental health settings through a mixed qualitative-quantitative design.
Passing for "normal": Features that affect the community inclusion of people with mental illness
The purpose of this study was to investigate specific features that indicate to community members that a person has a mental illness and the emotional reactions elicited by these features, in hopes of understanding barriers to the community integration of people living with mental illnesses.
Predicting behavioral intentions to those with mental illness: The role of attitude specificity and norms
The goal of this study is to investigate whether attitudes towards specific behaviours and perceived normative expectations improve prediction of behavioural intentions towards a person with mental illness.
Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults
The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger and older groups of Korean Americans. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs.
"Culture in psychiatric epidemiology: Using ethnography and multiple mediator models to assess the relationship of caste with depression and anxiety in Nepal
The study aimed to identify mediators underlying caste-based disparities in mental health in Nepal. Caste-based disparities in mental health in rural Nepal are statistically mediated by poverty, lack of social support, and stressful life events. Interventions should target these areas to alleviate the excess mental health burden born by Dalit/Nepali women and men.
Mental disability and discriminatory practices: Effects of social representations of the mexican population
The aim of this study was to describe the general population's social representations of the disabled and analyze their relationship with the discriminatory practices from the state towards the mentally ill with respect to their right to health.
Psychotic symptoms and general health in a socially disadvantaged migrant community in Bologna
This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among Romanian immigrants living in very poor conditions at an abandoned hotel in Bologna and to highlight the possible correlation with general health status, distress and socio-demographic characteristics.
Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression
This study assessed public stigma in relation to individuals with depression and possible factors associated with this phenomenon.
Addressing recovery from severe mental illness in clinical supervision of advanced students
This article begins a dialogue about the need to incorporate emerging knowledge about recovery as an attainable outcome for individuals with severe mental illness in curricula. The author proposes that clinical supervision from a recovery model is faced with at least four semi-distinct challenges: the detection and avoidance of stigma, the setting of consensually valid and personally relevant goals, the development of a therapeutic relationship, and the assessment of barriers to recovery and outcomes.
So I wouldn't feel like I was excluded: The learning experience in computer education for persons with psychiatric disabilities.
This paper describes an exploratory, qualitative examination of factors that aid in the acquisition of computer skills by 12 adults across 2 settings: a structured, professionally-taught program and a less structured peer-taught setting. These pilot findings highlighted the importance to teaching effectiveness of striking a balance between flexibility and structure, with computer knowledge having broader implications for social inclusion.
Perceived helpfulness of websites for mental health information : A national survey of young Australians
Despite the high risk of developing a mental disorder during adolescence, many young people fail to receive appropriate treatment from mental health professionals. Recent studies have found certain mental health information websites have improved mental health literacy and reduced symptoms of depression. However, studies exploring young people's perceptions of such resources still remain scarce. The current paper compared young people's preference for a website with self-help books and two face-to-face services-counselling and mental health services.
To seek advice or not to seek advice about the problem: The help-seeking dilemma for obsessive-compulsive disorder
The present study aimed to explore some variables hypothetically involved in the help-seeking process among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Behavioral health needs and problem recognition by older adults receiving home-based aging services
The aims of this study were to examine behavioral health problems in a sample of older adults receiving home-based aging services, their recognition of behavioral health problems, and covariates of problem recognition.
Touch in mental health nursing: An exploratory study of nurses' views and perceptions
The aim of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses' perceptions of physical touch with people who experience mental health problems. A descriptive exploratory qualitative research design was used. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 10 registered psychiatric nurses who met the inclusion criteria and were randomly selected to participate in the study.
The concept of stigma, denoting relations of shame, has a long ancestry and has from the earliest times been associated with deviations from the 'normal', including, in various times and places, deviations from normative prescriptions of acceptable states of being for self and others. This paper dwells on modern social formations and offers conceptual and theoretical pointers towards a more convincing contemporary sociology of health-related stigma.
"Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescent pupils? understanding.
What factors influence attitudes towards people with current depression and current mania?
In this article, the authors were interested in learning if vulnerability to psychosis and mood disorders as well as social desirability can affect attitudes towards major depressive episodes and manic episodes.
Are personal values of importance in the stigmatization of people with mental illness?
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation of responses to the Schwartz Value Scale to preferred social distance to a person with either schizophrenia or depression. The influence of personal value priorities on discrimination has been investigated in several contexts, but seldom with reference to social distance towards those with mental illness.
Desire for social distance from people with mental disorders.
The review examines measurement of social distance; characteristics of people who desire greater social distance; experiences that affect social distance; characteristics of people that elicit social distance; the effects of psychiatric labelling; the effects of causal explanations for mental disorders; and interventions to reduce social distance.
An emotive subject: Insights from social, voluntary and healthcare professionals into the feelings of family carers for people with mental health problems.
This paper explores the emotions of family carers from the perspectives of social, voluntary and healthcare professionals. Sixty-five participants were interviewed, the sample included directors, managers and senior staff from social, voluntary and healthcare organisations.
SESAMI study of employment support for people with severe mental health problems: 12-month outcomes
In the context of UK policy to promote employment for people with disability as a means to greater social inclusion, this study investigated how people with severe mental health problems fare in existing supported employment agencies. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with successful placement in work and to test the impact of working on psychological well-being in this group.
A comparison of contextual and biomedical models of stigma reduction for depression with a nonclinical undergraduate sample.
This study compared biomedical, contextual, and control stigma reduction programs to each other and to a no-program control. The main hypotheses were that the contextual program would have the greatest impact and that a match between participants' beliefs about depression and the model presented would moderate this effect.
The intricate link between violence and mental disorder
The objective of this study was to use a longitudinal data set representative of the US population to clarify whether or how severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression lead to violent behavior.
Patient ethnicity and perceptions of families and friends regarding depression treatment
"Black Americans are less likely than white Americans to seek professional treatment for depression. Whether treatment recommendations are sought and implemented by patients will be influenced by the role families and friends play in diagnostic acceptance and treatment decisions. Researchers investigated the association of ethnicity with the perceived need for treatment of depression by family and friends of older primary care patients.
The Role of Gender in Mental-Illness Stigma: A National Experiment
In a national, Web-based survey experiment, the authors' investigated the role played by gender in moderating mental-illness stigma. Respondents read a case summary in which the gender of the person was orthogonally manipulated along with the type of disorder; the cases reflected either a male-typical disorder or a female-typical disorder.
Attitudes towards mental illness among health care students at Swedish universities - A follow-up study after completed clinical placement
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in attitudes towards mental illness after theoretical education and clinical placement among students from university programmes preparing for different kinds of health professions.
A study of stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental health problems among health professionals
The project aimed to assess stigmatized attitudes among health professionals directed towards people with mental health problems. The Attitude to Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess participants' attitudes towards fictitious patients from a secure forensic hospital and patients with schizophrenia and substance use disorders.
Attitudes to people with mental disorders: A mental health literacy survey in a rural area of Maharashtra, India
In this study a cross-sectional mental health literacy survey was undertaken in late 2007, which involved interviewer-administration of a questionnaire to 240 systematically sampled community members, and 60 purposively sampled village health workers.
Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents
This cross-sectional study utilizes interviews with 60 adolescents treated in a wraparound program to examine: (a) the extent to which adolescents diagnosed and treated for psychiatric disorders experience mental illness stigma and cope by using secrecy, (b) the extent to which stigmatization is associated with self-concept (self-esteem, mastery, future outlook) and morale (depression), and (c) which clinical and demographic characteristics are associated with perceived stigma.
Physicians-in-training attitudes toward caring for and working with patients with alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses
This study is designed to identify the progression of attitudinal shifts over time of physicians-in-training toward caring for people who receive substance abuse treatment.
Shame, not guilt, related to substance-abuse problems; Reducing feelings of shame may be key to more effective treatment
This study included three groups of participants with different levels of alcohol and drug problems. Two groups were primarily female college students about 20 years of age. The third group was comprised of predominantly male inmates from a metropolitan area jail who were, on average, 31 years of age.It appears that individuals who are prone to shame when dealing with a variety of life problems may also have a tendency to turn toward alcohol and other drugs to cope with this feeling.
The role of gender in mental-illness stigma: A national experiment
In a national, Web-based survey experiment, the authors investigated the role played by gender in moderating mental-illness stigma.
Creating change: Using the arts to help stop the stigma of mental Illness and foster social integration
In this article the author hopes to create a passion for change and suggest a way that everyone can help stop stigma. However, research is needed; a design for a study to test this hypothesis is described.
Effects of perceived discrimination on mental health and mental health services utilization among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons.
In this article the authors examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them.
Reducing the stigma of mental illness
A national report on mental health, produced by the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, indicates that Canada lags behind other developed countries in awareness of mental health and mental disorders. The report points out that health-care professionals are among the groups that perpetuate the stigma associated with mental illness.
Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders
This study uses mixed-method interviews with 54 US adolescents receiving integrated mental health services in a mid-sized mid-Western city to examine: (1) the extent to which they use psychiatric terms to refer to their problems ("self-label"), and (2) the relationships between adolescents' self-labeling and indicators of psychological well-being (self-esteem, mastery, depression and self-stigma).
Stigmatization, social distance and exclusion because of mental illness: The individual with mental illness as a 'stranger'
In this article, the author states a lack of knowledge of causes, symptoms and treatment options of mental disorders in the public and a lack of personal contact with affected individuals can result in prejudices and negative attitudes towards them-and subsequently in stigmatization and discrimination.
Social exclusion in clients with comorbid mental health and substance misuse problems
A case-control study to examine aspects of social exclusion between service users who have comorbid diagnoses and those with a single diagnosis. Samples were drawn from the service users of a mental health Trust in the South-East of England, from both Adult Mental Health (n = 400) and Drug and Alcohol services (n = 190). Data were collected from Care Programme Approach assessment forms and medical records.
Social exclusion and mental health: Conceptual and methodological review
The aim of this study was to conduct a conceptual and methodological review of social exclusion, focusing initially on the origins and definitions of the concept and then on approaches to its measurement, both in general and in relation to mental health.
Mental health training for law enforcement professionals
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine topics of interest and preferred modalities of training for police officers in their work with persons with mental illness. Police officers across Massachusetts attending in-service mental health training were asked to rate the importance of potential mental health topics and the effectiveness of potential training modalities on a Likert-type scale.
Small business employers' views on hiring individuals with mental illness
This study investigated the beliefs of small business employers regarding hiring individuals with mental illness. Fifty-eight participants completed mail-in questionnaires concerning beliefs and willingness to hire persons with mental illness.
A cross-cultural study of employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder: implications for recovery
In this study, we tested this lay approach by comparing employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder for entry-level jobs in US and China.
Self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness
The study sought to better understand why some people with mental illness self-stigmatize and develop low self-esteem while others remain indifferent to stigma or respond with a sense of empowerment. The authors hypothesized that a high level of perceived discrimination, little sense of identification with the group of people with mental illness, and a high level of perceived legitimacy of discrimination lead to self-stigma.
Increasing social support for individuals with serious mental illness: evaluating the compeer model of intentional friendship
In this study, the authors conducted a quasi-experimental study of Compeer, which matches community volunteers and people with SMI to increase social support.
Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness
The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation.
Mental illness and employment discrimination
This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities.
Employment equity and mental disability
Recent research on the civil rights issue of employment equity for people with psychiatric disabilities is reviewed.
Stigmatization in different mental health services: a comparison of psychiatric and general hospitals.
This article compares clients from psychiatric and general hospitals according to three dimensions of stigmatization, using data from structured questionnaires (n = 555). The results reveal that when background characteristics are taken into account clients of psychiatric wards of general hospitals report less stigma expectations and social rejection experiences in comparison with their counterparts in psychiatric hospitals.
Pathways between internalized stigma and outcomes related to recovery in schizophrenia spectrum disorders
This study empirically evaluated a model for how internalized stigma affects important outcomes related to recovery. A total of 102 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed measures of internalized stigma, awareness of mental illness, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, hopefulness, and coping. Path analyses tested a predicted model and an alternative model for the relationships between the variables.
Soldier attitudes toward mental health screening and seeking care upon return from combat
This study examined soldier attitudes about postdeployment mental health screening, treatment, barriers to care, strategies for overcoming barriers, and settings, personnel and timing for conducting postdeployment mental health screening.
Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria
The aim of the present study was to assess the lay public's attitude (social distance) towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria and examine the factors correlating with such an attitude.
Beliefs about depression and depression treatment among depressed veterans
In this article the authors states that they studied beliefs about depression and depression treatment among patients in a randomized trial of a chronic care intervention to improve depression treatment in the Veterans Administration healthcare system (n = 395).
How stigma interferes with mental health care
Many people who would benefit from mental health services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Given the existing literature in this area, recommendations are reviewed for ongoing research that will more comprehensively expand understanding of the stigma-care seeking link.
Community integration of transition-age individuals: views of young with mental health disorders
This qualitative study examines the perceptions of young adults with mental health disorders of community integration.Implications of the study discuss roles for behavioral health services in encouraging empowerment, choices, and connections so that young people with mental health disorders may achieve their preferred levels of community integration.
"In the mind of another' shame and acute psychiatric inpatient care: an exploratory study. A report on phase one: service users
The study explores service users' subjective experience of shame before, during and after psychiatric hospital admission. The research study's aims are to learn about situations that might influence quality of care because of shame experienced by individuals and groups of people.
Becoming culturally competent in ethnic psychopharmacology
This article will focus on the realm of ethnic psychopharmacology and propose a practice model for nurses to become culturally competent in the area of ethnic psychopharmacology.
The attitudes and sterotypes of supporting fields towards the persons with disabilities
The aim of this research was to establish the attitudes, the views and reactions of the helping fields (which include social workers and medical nurses) and those who aren't the part of that cathegory, towards the mentally ill people.
Community perceptions of mental health needs in an underserved minority neighborhood
This community-based participatory study asked residents about the meaning of mental health, their perceptions of community mental health needs, barriers to accessing mental health care, and acceptability of mental health services that are integrated in primary health clinics.
"Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward and Professional Interactions With People With Mental Disorders
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma predicts less positive attitudes toward concordant medication counselling.
Affiliate Stigma Among Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disability or Mental Illness
In this study two hundred and ten caregivers of people with intellectual disability (CPID) and 108 caregivers of people with mental illness (CPMI) were recruited to validate the 22-item Affiliate Stigma Scale with caregiving stress, subjective burden and positive perceptions.
Exploring the role and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners following psychosocial interventions training.
The authors reports the findings of a study on the roles and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners towards clients with enduring mental illness and their carers following completion of Psychosocial interventions (PSI) training.
The public's stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: how important are biomedical conceptualizations?
This study examined hypotheses that stigmatizing attitudes are increased by use of psychiatric labels, by conceptualization of symptoms as a medical illness and by belief in genetic causes.
Reducing self-stigma in substance abuse through acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, manual development, and pilot outcomes
This article describes the development of an acceptance based treatment (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-ACT) for self-stigma in individuals in treatment for substance use disorder.
An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse
This study examined the impact of stigma on patients in substance abuse treatment. Patients from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning.
Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users
Researchers conducted this study to measure how discrimination may affect the mental and physical health among illicit drug users. The association of stigma and discrimination with poor health among drug users suggests the need for debate on the relative risks and benefits of stigma and discrimination in this context.
Mental health provider perspectives on co-occurring substance use among severely mentally ill clients
This qualitative study explores strategies used by mental health providers to address substance use problems among clients with serious mental illnesses and their perspectives on barriers to treatment and how treatment can be improved.
How do children stigmatize people with mental illness?
The purpose of this study was to validate models of mental illness stigma on children in grades 6-8.
"Culture, children, and mental health treatment: Special section on the national stigma study-children
This introduction to a special section of the "Psychiatric Services" journal discusses the need for a nationally representative survey of public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs on children's mental health. It also provides brief information on the survey that was conducted and its outcomes.
Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the National Stigma Study-Children.
Child and adolescent psychiatry confronts help-seeking delays and low treatment use and adherence. Although lack of knowledge has been cited as an underlying reason, the authors aim to provide data on public recognition of, and beliefs about, problems and sources of help.
Mental health of young people: A global public-health challenge.
This article discusses the mental health of young people and proposes the development of a population-based, youth focused model, explicitly integrating mental health with other youth health and welfare expertise in order to remedy the situation.
Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about treatment and psychiatric medications for children with mental illness
In this study data on community responses to two treatment issues critical for children and adolescents with mental health problems are addressed: stigma associated with receiving mental health care and the willingness to use psychiatric medication.
Adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression and PTSD
The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stigmatizing attitudes toward these three mental disorders were evaluated in 325 senior students from medical, commercial, and grammar high schools in Croatia using a 45-item questionnaire.
Self-stigma, self-esteem and age in persons with schizophrenia
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-stigma and self-esteem in people with schizophrenia in both younger and older age groups.
Depression self-stigma: A new measure and preliminary findings
This study sought to develop the Depression Self-Stigma Scale (DSSS) and identify distinct constructs associated with depression self-stigma.
The association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and mental health care in a multi-ethnic community sample
This study examines the association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and mental health care, in a representative, multi-ethnic community sample. Data were derived from a cross sectional survey of 10,098 White, U.S.-born Black, African-born Black, American Indian, Hispanic, and Southeast Asian adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota.The higher prevalence of discrimination among racial and ethnic minorities may contribute to their underutilization of health care services. Future research is needed to understand the impacts of different types of discrimination on different groups.
Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys
In this study, the researchers assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study.
Factors and measurement of mental Illness stigma: A Psychometric examination of the attribution questionaire
The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ). Based on responses from 774 college students, exploratory factor analyses were conducted followed by an examination of the reliability and validity of the newly formed factor scales.
The prevalence of perceived discrimination among African American and Caribbean Black youth
This study examined ethnic, gender, and age differences in perceived discrimination and the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre.
"Can antistigma campaigns be improved? A test of the impact of biogenetic vs psychosocial causal explanations on implicit and explicit attitudes to schizophrenia
The present study investigates the impact of different psychoeducational interventions on the etiology of schizophrenia (biogentic and psychosocial vs a neutral condition) and on stigmatizing attitudes in medical and psychology students.
Understanding and influencing the stigma of mental illness
In this article the researcher addressed three kinds of stigma that may act as barriers to personal aspirations: public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. He also proposes methods that can be used to counter these stigmas.
The stigma of families with mental illness
This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. The authors also present strategies to eliminate stigma and discuss implications for the training goals of psychiatrists throughout the text.
Psychoeducation to address stigma in Black adults referred for mental health treatment: A randomized pilot study.
In this study, forty-two Black clients referred for outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to receive existing brochures about services or a psychoeducational booklet about stigma based on experiences of Black mental health consumers. At 3-month follow-up, clients reported that both types of information were helpful; there were no significant differences between the types of information on treatment attendance.
Mental illness stigma and its correlates among adolescent wraparound clients
This synopsis of a presentation made during the 2007 Annual Research Conference provides information on a study that was conducted examining the mental illness stigma experiences of adolescents receiving wraparound services and identifies individual, familial, social, clinical, and treatment-related factors associated with mental illness stigma.
Gender, race-ethnicity, and psychosocial barriers to mental healthcare: An examination of perceptions and attitudes among adults reporting unmet need
This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for mental health care, focusing on gender and race-ethnicity.
Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies
The authors review the available empirical evidence from population-based studies of the association between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and health. This research indicates that discrimination is associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and, especially, mental health status. However, the extant research does not adequately address whether and how exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of disease.
How Children Stigmatize People With Mental Illness
In this article, the authors discuss their review of social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice,in order to learn about mental illness stigma among children. They then summarize the literature on stigma change, focusing on how specific strategies interact with what is known about social cognitive development and prejudice. Strategies that are reviewed include education, contact, social cognitive skills training, role play for empathy, peer interaction, protest and consequences.
Gender specific correlates of stigma toward depression in a Canadian general population sample
The objective of this study was to identify gender specific demographic, clinical, knowledge and attitudinal factors associated with stigma related to depression.
Neuroscience and mental health education: A multimedia curriculum and teacher education project for middle school children
This study evaluated a mental health and drug awareness program for fifth grade students presented by the Hult and Crown Health Education Centers (HHEC and CHEC). Pre- and post-test data were collected from 197 fifth grade students randomly assigned to two treatment groups and one control group for each center.
Don't call me nuts! Coping with the stigma of mental illness
Don't Call Me Nuts! is a handbook for persons with mental illness. In its pages are discussions about dealing with self-stigma, knowing when or whether to disclose a mental illness, seven ways to foster personal empowerment, and legal and political remedies. The book explores the public's reaction to stigma through the methods of contact, education, or protest.
Can antistigma campaigns be improved? A test of the impact of biogenetic vs psychosocial causal explanations on implicit and explicit attitudes to schizophrenia
The present study investigates the impact of different psychoeducational interventions on the etiology of schizophrenia (biogenetic and psychosocial, vs a neutral condition) and on stigmatizing attitudes in medical and psychology students. Attitudes were assessed before and after the interventions on an explicit level using the stereotype questionnaire and the Social Distance Scale as well as on an implicit level, using the Implicit Association Test.
Anti-stigma films and medical students attitudes towards mental illness and psychiatry: Randomised controlled trial
The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of two anti-stigma films on medical students? attitudes to serious mental illness and psychiatry. Attitudes to serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness, social distance and psychiatry, were measured before and after watching the films and at 8 weeks.
Does mental illness stigma contribute to adolescent standardized patients? discomfort with simulations of mental illness and adverse psychosocial experiences?
Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients? (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical association between simulation discomfort and mental illness stigma.
Factors and measurement of mental illness stigma: A psychometric examination of the attribution questionnaire
A number of scales are employed to measure mental illness stigma, but many fail to have documented or adequate psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ).
Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression
This study was conducted in Brazil to assess public stigma in relation to individuals with depression and possible factors associated with this phenomenon.
Children's stigmatization of childhood depression and ADHD: Magnitude and demographic variation in a national sample
The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of stigmatizing attitudes toward peers with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a national sample of children ages 8 to 18 and to examine variation in level of stigma by school location, region of the United States, grade level, race/ethnicity, or sex.
Assessment of need for a school-based mental health programme in Nigeria: Perspectives of school administrators
In this study key informants from southwest Nigeria were interviewed to identify their perspectives on child mental illness and needs for a school mental health programme.
Needs and preferences for receiving mental health information in an African American focus group sample
The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. Researchers conducted four focus groups (n = 42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system.
The construction of fear: Americans' preferences for social distance from children and adolescents with mental health problems
In this article, researchers organize a general model of stigma that synthesizes previous research. The researchers note that debates about children's mental health problems have raised questions about the reliability and validity of diagnosis and treatment. However, little research has focused on social reactions to children with mental health problems.
Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about treatment and psychiatric medications for children with mental illness
Researchers interviewed a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adult participants of the U.S. population to obtain data on community responses to two treatment issues critical for children and adolescents with mental health problems are addressed: stigma associated with receiving mental health care and the willingness to use psychiatric medication.
The self-stigma of mental illness : Implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy
The relationships between elements of a self-stigma model and self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression are examined in this study. Self-stigma is distinguished from perceived stigma (stereotype awareness) and presented as a three-level model: stereotype agreement, self-concurrence, and self-esteem decrement.
Predictors of depression stigma
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression.
Stigma as related to mental disorders
The authors begins this review with a multidisciplinary discussion of mechanisms underlying the strong propensity to devalue individuals displaying both deviant behavior and the label of mental illness. The article concludes with a brief review of multilevel efforts to overcome mental illness stigma, spanning policy and legislation, alterations in media depictions, changed attitudes and practices among mental health professionals, contact and empathy enhancement, and family and individual treatment.
Cultural differences in access to care
As high-profile reviews have appeared and international interest has grown, sophisticated studies of the U.S. population continue to document racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of mental health care and in continuity of care. Many explanations focus on cultural factors: trust and treatment receptiveness, stigma, culturally distinctive beliefs about mental illness and mental health, culturally sanctioned ways of expressing mental health-related suffering and coping styles, and client preferences for alternative interventions and treatment-seeking pathways, as well as unresponsive programs and providers.
Challenging stigma around mental illness and promoting social inclusion using the performing arts
This article outlines the rationale, evidence base, method and qualitative evaluation of a project that uses the performing arts to challenge the stigma surrounding mental illness and promote social inclusion of people with mental health problems.
Genetic attribution for schizophrenia, depression, and skin cancer: Impact on social distance
In this study it was predicted that both genetic attribution for illness and type of illness would be related to a desire for social distance. There was a significant interaction between illness type and genetic attribution for illness, with an increase in willingness to interact when schizophrenia was described as genetically caused and a decrease in willingness to interact when major depression was described as genetically caused.
How does being female assist help-seeking for mental health problems?
The aim of the present study was to examine a number of attitudinal factors that may influence help-seeking for mental health problems. Men scored higher on measures of stoicism and personal stigma associated with mental health problems than women, and compared to women had lower scores on the facets of openness to experience.
Social capital, anticipated ethnic discrimination and self-reported psychological health: A population-based study
This study investigates the association between anticipated ethnic discrimination and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized trust in other people into consideration. The 2004 Public Health Survey in Skåne, Sweden, is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study including a total of 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 with a 59% response rate.
Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: The role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination
The primary purpose of this study was to examine relations between trauma exposure, post-resettlement stressors, perceived discrimination, and mental health symptoms in Somali adolescent refugees resettled in the U.S. Participants were English-speaking Somali adolescent refugees between the ages of 11 and 20 (N = 135) who had resettled in the U.S.
The reccurrence of an illusion: The concept of "Evil" in forensic psychiatry
The author notes an increased interest in the concept of "evil" in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. It is argued that evil can never be scientifically defined because it is an illusory moral concept, it does not exist in nature, and its origins and connotations are inextricably linked to religion and mythology. Use of the term in psychiatry will contribute to stigmatization of mental illness.
Attitudes towards people with mental illness: A cross-sectional study among nursing staff in psychiatric and somatic care
The aim of the present study was to investigate attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness among nursing staff working in psychiatric or somatic care. The sample consisted of 120 registered or assistant nurses who were interviewed about intimacy with mental illness and attitudes about seven different mental illnesses.
Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking
This study used cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N=2,782) at one university. A five-item scale was used to assess perceived public stigma toward mental health service use. Perceived need for help in the past 12 months and current presence of depressive and anxiety disorders were also assessed.
News media portrayal of mental illness
A study of 1999 newspapers revealed that dangerousness is the most common theme of stories about mental illnesses. In contrast, stories of recovery or accomplishment were found to be rare. The ratio of negative to positive stories involving mental illness decreased between 1989 and 1999, but negative stories continued to far outnumber positive ones. The potential influence of these patterns of news coverage on public attitudes and public policy are discussed.
Immigrant perceptions of discrimination in health care: The California Health Interview Survey 2003
In this article the authors examined whether foreign-born persons are more likely to report discrimination in healthcare than U.S.-born persons in the same race/ethnic group, whether the immigration effect varies by race/ethnicity, and whether the immigration effect is "explained" by sociodemographic factors.
Mental illness is not the same as incompetence: Voting rights, archaic laws, & stigmatizing language
Editorial article written by a registered nurse who provides some insight regarding the voting rights of individuals with mental illness.
The stigma scale: Development of a standardised measure of the stigma of mental illness
Provides an overview of the development of a standardised instrument to measure the stigma of mental illness.
Family heritage and depression guides: Family and peer views influence adolescent attitudes about depression
In this study, 15 adolescents were interviewed to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression.
Psychological distress among Latino family caregivers of adults with schizophrenia: The roles of burden and stigma
This study examined the relation between caregivers' mental health and perceived burden and stigma and characteristics of the patient and caregiver within the Latino community.
Americans attitudes toward mental health treatment seeking: 1990-2003
This study examined recent trends in Americans' attitudes toward mental health treatment seeking and beliefs about the effectiveness of such treatment.
Higher education and psychiatric disabilities: National survey of campus disability services
This article reports the results of a survey of disability services offices at colleges and universities in 10 States.
Family views of stigma
The views of 487 members of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) concerning stigma were surveyed in 20 different States. Almost all identified stigma as a problem for their mentally ill relatives and for families in general.
Language and stigma
Editorial letter discussing the paper, "'Difficult Patients in Mental Health Care: A Review." The author points out that the term "difficult patient" can be stigmatizing.
Gender specific correlates of stigma toward depression in a Canadian general population sample.
The objectives of this research were to identify gender specific demographic, clinical, knowledge and attitudinal factors associated with stigma related to depression.
Reducing stigma and discrimination against older people with mental disorders: A technical consensus statement
This technical consensus statement is jointly produced by the Old Age Psychiatry section of the World Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization, and other non-governmental organizations. It is intended to be a tool for (i) promoting debate at all levels on the stigmatisation of older people with mental disorders; (ii) outlining the nature, causes and consequences of this stigmatisation; and (iii) promoting and suggesting policies, programmes and actions to combat this stigmatisation.
Community integration for older adults with mental illnesses: Overcoming barriers and seizing opportunities
This report is the third in a series of reports prepared by the National and Statewide Coalitions to Promote Community-Based Care under Olmstead project. It is designed to help State and local Olmstead coalitions understand the barriers that older adults face and learn about the innovative solutions being adopted and adapted across the country.
Chapter 5 of "Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General": Older adults and mental health
This chapter of the Surgeon General's report on mental health addresses various areas of interest for the older adult population, specifically considering mental disorders in older people - their diagnosis and treatment, and the various risk factors that may complicate the course or outcome of treatment.
Rural and frontier mental and behavioral health care: Barriers, effective policy strategies, best practices
This report focuses on the following areas: barriers to mental and behavioral health service delivery in rural America, model programs and effective activities for rural America, model policy strategies for rural mental and behavioral health care delivery, the role telehealth should play in service delivery to rural America, and the role that State Offices of Rural Health and other State and local organizations should play in service delivery to rural America.
Meta-analysis of stigma and mental health
Recent research has emphasized the adverse effects of stigma on minority groups' mental health. Governments and service agencies have put much effort into combating stigma against a variety of conditions. Nevertheless, previous empirical research on the stigma/mental health relationship has yielded inconclusive findings, varying from strong negative to zero correlations. Thus, whether stigma is related significantly to mental health is yet to be confirmed.
Campus mental health services: Recommendations for change
College officials indicate that the number of students with serious mental illnesses has risen significantly. Media attention surrounding several high profile suicides has opened discussion of mental illness on campus. The authors summarize literature on college students and mental illness, including barriers to service receipt. Recommendations to improve campus-based responses for persons with a serious mental illness are presented on the basis of well-accepted service principles.
The journey of Native American people with serious mental illness: Executive summary
This report describes the first national conference on Native American people with serious mental illness. Describes meeting of State, tribal, and Federal mental health officials; providers; families; and consumers to tackle mental health delivery issues for Native Americans and to overcome barriers for developing coordinated, efficient, and culturally relevant systems of care.
Empowerment of women and mental health promotion: A qualitative study in rural Maharashtra, India
The global burden of mental illness is high and opportunities for promoting mental health are neglected in most parts of the world. Many people affected by mental illness live in developing countries, where treatment and care options are limited. In this context, primary health care (PHC) programs can indirectly promote mental health by addressing its determinants i.e. by enhancing social unity, minimizing discrimination and generating income opportunities.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer-provided mental health recovery education presentation
The current study investigated the effectiveness of the In Our Own Voice (IOOV) mental health education program in improving knowledge and attitudes about mental illnesses.
Solutions to discrimination in work and housing identified by people with mental illness
This study examines perceived solutions to discrimination in housing and employment situations.
Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?
This study examines the impact of two versions of anti-stigma programs-education and contact-presented on videotape.
Mental illness and employment discrimination
This article presents a review of recent research that seeks to determine employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. In this study, researchers take an extensive view of the stigmatization process to include cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and structural disadvantages.
Workplace effects of the stigmatization of depression
Employers have previously been shown to hold negative attitudes toward mental illness. The purpose of this survey of human resource officers in UK companies was to ascertain whether these attitudes prejudice employment opportunities for subjects with mental illnesses--specifically, depression--and, if so, some of the beliefs upon which these attitudes are based.
Effects of an antistigma program on medical students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia
The purpose of this study was to examine whether an antistigma program which consists of education, contact, and viewing a film that depicts an individual with schizophrenia, can change attitudes towards people with schizophrenia.
The sympathetic discriminator: Mental illness, hedonic costs, and the ADA
Discrimination against people with mental illness occurs in part because of how those with mental illness can make other people feel.Thus, a central basis for discrimination in this context is what I call hedonic costs. Hedonic costs are affective or emotional costs: an influx of negative emotion or loss of positive emotion. In addition, the phenomenon of emotional contagion, which is one source of hedonic costs, makes discrimination against people with mental illness peculiarly intractable.
Stigma interventions and research for international health
This paper is one of several delivered at an international conference, Stigma and Global Health: Developing a Research Agenda, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health's Fogarty International Center (FIC) in September 2001. The paper includes a definition of health-related stigma and six research objectives, based on the stigma definition.
"It's important to be proud of the place you live in": Housing problems and preferences of psychiatric survivors.
This paper reports findings from a series of focus group meetings held with survivors of mental illness to address issues concerning housing preferences and housing needs.
The Carter Center Mental Health Program: Addressing the public health crisis in the field of mental health through policy change and stigma reduction.
This article examines the public health crisis in the field of mental health and focuses on The Carter Center Mental Health Program?s initiatives, which work to increase public knowledge of and decrease the stigma associated with mental illnesses.
No comfort in the rural south: Women living depressed
An article discussing the opportunities for research and strategy that exist for providing mental health services to women in a rural area.
Brief reports: self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness
The study sought to better understand why some people with mental illness self-stigmatize and develop low self-esteem while others remain indifferent to stigma or respond with a sense of empowerment. The authors hypothesized that a high level of perceived discrimination, little sense of identification with the group of people with mental illness, and a high level of perceived legitimacy of discrimination lead to self-stigma.
Advocacy for mental health: Roles for consumers and family organizations and governments
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health.
Association between community and client characteristics and subjective measures of the quality of housing
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between subjective perceptions of the quality of housing among mental health consumers and both client characteristics and objective measures of the client's neighborhood.
Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care
This study provides an initial look at the mental health of members of the Army and the Marine Corps who were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our findings indicate that among the study groups there was a significant risk of mental health problems and that the subjects reported important barriers to receiving mental health services, particularly the perception of stigma among those most in need of such care.
Design and initial results from a supported education initiative: The Kansas Consumer as Provider program
This article describes the Consumer as Provider (CAP) Training program at the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare, which creates opportunities for individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities to develop knowledge and skills to be effective as human service providers.
Church-based support groups for African American families coping with mental illness: Outreach and outcomes
This study examined the outreach efforts used to provide information about support groups to congregants as well as the participation outcomes reported by families who attended support group meetings.
Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness
Although there is some literature that documents the relationship of religiousness and spirituality with health and well-being, far fewer studies have examined this phenomenon for people with serious mental illness. In this study, people with serious mental illness completed self-report measures of religiousness and spirituality.
Perspectives of people with psychiatric disabilities on employment disclosure
A qualitative study, including a focus group and individual interviews, was conducted to gather data from people with psychiatric disabilities/labels regarding employment disclosure. Major findings include the significant impact of disability identity (does the participant think they have a disability?), and the importance of appropriate job matching as a disclosure strategy.
Structural stigma in state legislation
This article discusses examples of structural stigma that results from state governments' enactment of laws that diminish the opportunities of people with mental illness.
Social network's healing power is borne out in poorer nations
This article describes the findings of a 3-decade-long study by the World Health Organization (WHO) which found that mental health consumers in poorer countries have higher rates of recovering from schizophrenia. Key findings described explore the role that family support, culture, and other social networks have on individuals with schizophrenia. This article discusses the differences in the roles of doctors, the invaluable role of families, and the importance of integrating social and cultural supports with medicine to achieve more positive outcomes.
At issue: Stop the stigma: Call mental illness a brain disease
Educating the public that mental illness is a brain disease is a popular strategy for combating mental illness stigma. Evidence suggests that while such an approach reduces blame for mental illness, it may unintentionally exacerbate other components of stigma, particularly the benevolence and dangerousness of stigmas. Researchers propose a balanced approach that combats the various myths about mental illness with factual information.
Structural levels of mental illness stigma and discrimination
In this article, using a sociological paradigm, we apply the concepts of structural discrimination to broaden our understanding of stigmatizing processes directed at people with mental illness.
Stigmatization, discrimination, and mental health: The impact of multiple identity status
The authors present the empirical characteristics of the Experience of Discrimination Scale (EDS) using baseline data from the Center for Mental Health Services-funded, multisite Consumer Operated Services Project. Specific hypotheses focused on the influence of multiple identity status on reports of discrimination. Data indicated that discrimination caused by mental disability was associated with level of psychiatric symptoms and perceived social rejection as a result of mental illness, whereas discrimination for other reasons was associated with broader quality of life and social interaction indicators. The clinical and policy implications of findings are discussed.
Report of the Surgeon General's conference on children's mental health: A national action agenda
This report introduces a blueprint for addressing children's mental health needs in the United States.
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
The current text of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [?ADA?], as amended.
Consumer experience of stigma: A national survey
This article summarizes the results of a nationwide survey of 1,301 mental health consumers concerning their experience of stigma and discrimination.
President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health
The Commission?s mission was to study the United States mental health service delivery system, including both private and public sector providers. The Commission advised the President on methods to improve the system. The Commission?s goal was to recommend improvements that will enable adults with a serious mental illness and children with a serious emotional disturbance to live, work, learn, and participate fully in their communities.
Overlooked and underserved: Elders in need of mental health care
A brief article providing information on the needs of the elder community.
Housing and mental health: Reducing housing difficulties for people with mental illness
This paper outlines key issues in housing provision for people with serious mental illness and suggests a policy framework. It draws on the limited research available on the housing needs of people with mental illness and on information available from the mental health sector. It is intended to generate discussion and better understanding of the issues in the mental health and housing sectors.
Drop the stigma: To keep kids from lashing out, parents must urge them to accept help
An article in which Tipper Gore addresses the need for parents and adults to "erase the stigma that prevents our kids from getting the help they need for their mental health."
An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness
In this study, researchers build on previous work by developing and estimating a model of the relationships between causal attributions (e.g., controllability, responsibility), familiarity with mental illness, dangerousness, emotional responses (e.g., pity, anger, fear), and helping and rejecting responses. The results from this study also suggest that familiarity with mental illness reduces discriminatory responses.
Challenging two mental illness stigmas: Personal responsibility and dangerousness
This study set out to examine path models that explain how these attitudes lead to discriminatory behavior and to assess the impact of antistigma programs on components of personal responsibility and dangerousness models.
Children's beliefs about people labeled mentally ill
A group of 104 third-grade students told stories in response to pictures of adults labeled mentally ill, physically disabled, or unlabeled, and answered questions regarding expected behavior of these adults. Results indicate that children of this age hold more overall negative attitudes about adults labeled mentally ill than about those designated as physically disabled or nondisabled.
Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: II. The impact of information on dangerousness
This study addressed a relatively neglected topic in schizophrenia: identifying methods to reduce stigma directed toward individuals with this disorder. The study investigated whether presentation of information describing the association between violent behavior and schizophrenia could affect subjects' impressions of the dangerousness of both a target person with schizophrenia and individuals with mental illness in general.
Empowerment and serious mental illness: Treatment partnerships and community opportunities
Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions.
From whence comes mental illness stigma?
This paper seeks to answer two fundamental questions: What is the basis of the current form of mental illness stigma? and Why do western cultures stereotype people with mental illness as dangerous, incompetent and blameful, rather than something else?
The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness
Published narratives by persons with serious mental illness eloquently describe the harmful effects of stigma on self-esteem and self-efficacy. However, a more careful review of the research literature suggests a paradox; namely, personal reactions to the stigma of mental illness may result in significant loss in self-esteem for some, while others are energized by prejudice and express righteous anger.
What factors explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services?
Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.
Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys
Little is known about the extent or severity of untreated mental disorders, especially in less-developed countries. This study estimates prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in 14 countries (6 less developed, 8 developed) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative.
Implications of educating the public on mental illness, violence, and stigma
This study examined how two types of public education programs influenced how the public perceived persons with mental illness, their potential for violence, and the stigma of mental illness.